Toward a Reflexive Approach to Remix—or—What Hawai‘i Creole English and Corporate Tourism Can Teach Us about Copyright

Co-authored with Robyn Tasaka and Lehua Ledbetter and published in Cultures of Copyright, edited by Danielle Nicole DeVoss and Martine Courant Rife, Peter Lang

We examine cultural practices and processes of cultural production as intellectual work and shared knowledge. More specifically, we disentangle the complex social relations and political histories that have accompanied processes of cultural production in Hawai‘i, with issues of intellectual property in mind. Using historical, rhetorical, and literary methods of analysis, we examine cultural production in Hawai‘i in two cases: First, we explore Hawai‘i Creole English (HCE) as a kind of “remix.” Then, we examine how corporate tourism “remixes” local and Hawaiian culture on, Hawai‘i‘s official tourism web site, along with how such representations have, themselves, been remixed. Ultimately, we show how these cases provide opportunities for re-examining notions of copyright and ownership in ways that better account for issues of shared identity, cultural survivance, cultural appropriation, and ideological co-lonial violence. We conclude by providing steps toward a reflexive approach to remix.